Pluto, Prague, and Lincoln-Douglas
Britannica.com Week in Preview: August 18-24
Two years ago it became a little smaller world, and many of us were grumpy about it. On August 24, 2006, the International Astronomical Union sent the textbook and reference world into a tizzy when they demoted Pluto to a dwarf planet. Dwarf planet/smaller world? Perhaps someone at the IAU had some Disney fetish when they came up with this new classification? You know it’s a tough economy when even a planet can get laid off. Well, not to worry, the demotion sparked a cottage industry, and many scientists, businessmen, school children, and lawmakers have spent the better part of two years trying to restore Pluto to its former glory.
Other features this week at Britannica.com’s homepage include:
August 18: On Monday film director Roman Polanski turns 75. His Chinatown (1974) reinvigorated the moribund film noir genre, and several later films, including The Pianist (2002), received wide acclaim, though Polanski’s life evoked controversy after he fled to France in 1977 after pleading guilty to having sex with a minor. Mongolia isn’t often in the international news, but this week it’s in celebratory mode. Last week Tuvshinbayar Naidan captured the country’s first Olympic medal, and it was on this day in 1227 that the great Mongolian warrior-ruler Genghis Khan died. Though he lived 800 years ago, he continues to cast a huge shadow over the modern world, and he even had time to make a cameo appearance in the film Night at the Museum in 2006. Also on Monday, twos are wild as the Bay of Smokes, Reykjavík, celebrates the 222nd anniversary since it was designated the administrative capital of Iceland; and it was this day in 1587 that Virginia (I was actually born in what is now North Carolina) Dare became the first English child born in the New World.
August 19: Bill Clinton was a controversial figure as president, and this year he became embroiled in a controversy over race during the Democratic primary. All may not be forgiven and forgotten, but as Bill prepares for his convention speech next week in Denver the former president celebrates his 62nd birthday. Am I alone in wondering what gift Barack Obama will be sending? Tuesday is also the 125th anniversary of the birth of one of the queens of fashion–Gabrielle Chanel; she ruled over Parisian haute couture for almost six decades. It was the beginning of the end for Mikhail Gorbachev and the beginning of the beginning for Boris Yeltsin on this day in 1991, as hard-line communists staged a coup against Gorby. Also on Tuesday, Afghanistan celebrates its 89th anniversary of independence from Great Britain.
August 20: Soviet communists may have been unsuccessful in 1991, but they sure were successful in 1968. It was 40 years ago that Soviet troops crushed the Prague Spring liberalization in Czechoslovakia–a country that still exists sometimes in the words of one presidential candidate. With the conflict in South Ossetia, many historians are harkening back to Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968. It was also 33 years ago on Wednesday when the Viking 1 spacecraft was launched; after its 7 year mission was completed, it had mapped and analyzed large expanses of the Martian surface. Though he died young, architect Eero Saarinen (born 98 years ago this week) left a lasting impression as one of the leaders in a trend toward exploration and experiment in American architectural design during the 1950s; though his TWA terminal at JFK Airport in New York City was a major achievement, I wonder if he would be quite proud of being associated with what was allowed to become a pretty drab spectacle on the interior.
August 21: As John McCain and Barack Obama prepare for their conventions and debates, we can be pretty sure that they won’t reach the rhetorical (or historical) quality of the Lincoln-Douglas debates, which kicked off 150 years ago in Ottawa, Illinois. Those seven debates ran three hours long each, and apparently reporters weren’t there to ask ridiculous questions such as this gem from the 2008 Democratic debate by ABC moderator George Stephanopoulos to Barack Obama: “But do you believe he’s [Obama’s erstwhile pastor Jeremiah Wright] as patriotic as you are?” With fabrications about Obama continuing to swirl (13% of Americans continue to believe Obama is a Muslim) and even making their way into a #1 NYT best seller, one has to wonder if these debates would have had the same historical impact if cameras were there and reporters able to moderate. Communists just didn’t have a good time this week in 1991. While communists were attempting to oust Gorbachev in the U.S.S.R., they were losing their grip on Latvia, which declared its independence 17 years ago Thursday. Also on Thursday, music fans remember Count Basie, one of the giants of jazz, who was born 104 years ago.
August 22: Friday marks the 144th anniversary of the Geneva Convention, which gave international recognition to the Red Cross. The neutral organization has been awarded three Nobel Peace Prizes, and the use of its symbols during the rescue of Ingrid Betancourt and other hostages held by the FARC in Colombia led to charges that the government’s actions might jeopardize the organization’s relief efforts. It was also 19 years ago this week that the Ryan Express notched his 5,000 strikeout. Nolan Ryan eventually retired at age 46 with 5,714 K’s.
August 23: While U.S. basketball star Kobe Bryant prepares for what he hopes will be the gold medal match on Saturday, he will be celebrating a birthday. The soon-to-be 30-year-old phenom has already played 12 seasons in the NBA and is 24th on the NBA’s all-time scoring list. Queen Noor of Jordan, wife of former King Hussein, turns 57. She is engaged in many philanthropic efforts, particularly land mine elimination, and a few years ago she wrote a piece for Britannica on their danger (see The Hidden Dangers of Land Mines). Miscarriage of justice? Eighty-one years ago Sacco and Vanzetti were executed. Historians continue to debate their guilt–on the 50th anniversary of their execution Massachusetts governor Mike Dukakis issued a proclamation stating that Sacco and Vanzetti had not been treated justly and that no stigma should be associated with their names. Saturday also marks the 399th anniversary of Galileo’s presentation of his design for the telescope to the Venetian Senate.
August 24: Pluto’s status as a planet occurred two years ago; Pompeii’s destruction occurred 1,929 years ago. On this day in 79 CE, the Roman city was buried in an ocean of ash after the eruption of Vesuvius. Also on Sunday is the anniversary of the births of former Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat and Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges.
This and other information is available this week via Britannica’s homepage. Or, you can search the site to read other articles of interest. I’ll be back next week with another preview of Britannica’s weekly content.
[Reposted from the Britannica Blog]